Ilhavo Park: Fort William and the civil fort during the French raid of 1709

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The City of St. John’s has a long human history and therefore has a long archaeological record dating back to at least the Maritime Archaic period ~3200-~5500 years ago. This antiquity is evidenced by the discovery of a Maritime Archaic biface near the Waterford River in the 19th-century.

With this history in mind, when the Provincial Archaeology Office (PAO) receives a land use application for within the city, particularly for downtown, an archaeological impact assessment is usually required. Thankfully, the PAO has a good working relationship with the City and they understand and support our goal of the protection of archaeological resources.

In 2003 the PAO received an application on behalf of the Grand Concourse Authority for the construction of a small park and monument that commemorated the cultural and historical influence of the Portuguese White Fleet on the City of St. John’s. The park was to be located at the intersection of Duckworth Street and Plymouth Road and it represents a partnership between the cities of St. John’s and Ilhavo, Portugal.

Ilhavo Park (Google Maps)

Ilhavo Park today
(Google Maps)

The area prior to development in 2003

The area prior to development in 2003 (Mills)

The PAO knew the area had archaeological potential because in 1993 Dr. Peter Pope with Memorial University of Newfoundland found portions of the late 17th to early 18th-century civil fort that was attached to Fort William directly across the street towards the Harbour (Pope 1993). Based on this knowledge the PAO advised the Grand Concourse Authority of the archaeological potential in the area and that an archaeological impact assessment was required.

The stage 1 assessment conducted by archaeologist Stephen Mills in 2003 identified…

Numerous cartographic sources dating back to the late-seventeenth century indicate that the area was within or adjacent to the military installations known as Fort William and Fort George (or Civil Fort) that date between the late-1690s and mid-eighteenth century. Residential occupations of the site date at least to the middle of the nineteenth century (2003:1).
A 1726 map of St. John's thought to have been made by M. de Saint Ovide de Brouillant. The whole map can be seen here: http://collections.mun.ca/cdm/singleitem/collection/maps/id/235/rec/11

A map of St. John’s thought to have been made by M. de Saint Ovide de Brouillan after he captured the city in 1709.  Fort William is in the upper right and a profile view of the fort is in the lower left. The whole map can be seen here.

Construction of Fort William depicted on the map above began in 1697 under the direction of Colonel John Gibsone and in 1705 it is described as having 40 guns and surrounded by ramparts and pallisades with a glacis descending from the parapet. There was a second fort surrounded by a pallisade on the southern flank of the fort intended for the defence of the town’s non-military inhabitants. This second fort, the civil fort, is visible in both the plan and profile view in the above map (Mills 2003: 8).

Fort William was attacked by the French in 1705 and in the winter of 1709. The English repelled the 1705 attack but on January 1, 1709, under the command of Joseph de Mombeton de Saint-Ovide de Brouillon, the French captured Fort William and demolished it along with the rest of the defences in the harbour before heading back to Placentia that same winter. The fort was rebuilt by the British in the summer of 1709.

By the 1740s, a battery with twelve 24-pounders was constructed just to the south of Fort William, near the same location as the civilian fort from the early eighteenth century. This southern fort came to be known as Fort St. George or simply Fort George. These forts were again captured by the French in 1762 and reclaimed by the English in the fall of the same year (Mills 2003).

By the last half of the 19th-century both forts were gone. At this time the area was being taken over by roads and dwellings. The dwellings in the area burned down during the 1892 fire but were rebuilt. By the first quarter of the 20th century however the area was devoid of homes (Mills 2003).

Late 19th or early 20th century shot of the wooden homes built Ilhavo Park. Left side, centre of photo

Late 19th or early 20th-century photograph of the wooden homes built at Ilhavo Park. Left side of photo. From a Memorial University photo collection

All of this information was gathered prior to the archaeological impact assessment which was conducted between October 10, 2004 and November 27, 2004.

A single east-west trench (Trench A) running some 45 meters in length and upwards of two meters wide was excavated to subsoil (up to 3.15m below grade) along the entire northern edge of the study area Two test pits were dug in the southern portion of the study area, both also to subsoil or bedrock. One (Trench C) was located at the eastern end and the second (Trench B) near the center of the southern edge.

Following testing the entire fill removal process was monitored constantly. When artifacts or features were encountered, mechanical excavation was halted, or redirected, to provide an opportunity to investigate the area by more traditional means (Aardvark Archaeology 2004:8).

Map of the Ilhavo archaeology site showing the location of features and test units

Map of the Ilhavo archaeology site showing the location of features and test units (Aardvark Archaeology 2004)

The late component of the site was concentrated in five cellars. Three of the five 19th-century cellars measured on average 4×3 metres and were about 60 cm deep. Cellar four was 6×4.5 m and 180 cm deep. The fifth cellar was 7×3 m and 150 cm deep. All of the cellars contained typical 19th-century artifacts including ceramics, smoking pipes and assorted glass.

Click on the picture to see a larger version.

 

The early component was first encountered about one metre below the surface in the southwest corner of the study area. The approximate dimensions of the intact portion of the deposit were about 2.7m north-south by 4m east-west. The deposit averaged about 30cm in thickness, but at the western extremity of the study area was up to 70 cm thick (Aardvark Archaeology 2004: 25).
 

Though a small area the early component of the site contained a tightly dated event falling in the late 17th to the early 18th-century.

The most numerous class of artifact at the site was tobacco pipe stem and bowl fragments. Thirty-five bowl fragments and 394 measurable stem fragments make up the collection.

Of the bowl and bowl fragments 23 are from the English West Country and date to 1680-1720; three are forms from the West Country or London and date to 1680-1710; one is definitely from London, dating to 1690-1720; three are from Exeter and date to 1680-1720. Several of the bowl fragments had maker’s marks on the heel or side of the bowl; these can be dated to 1692-1700. The average date for the pipe stems was 1679 which was thought to be earlier than the archaeological component.

Assorted pipe bowls

Assorted pipe bowls

Click on the picture to see a larger version.

Fifty-eight ceramic vessels were identified as coming from Europe including Spain, Portugal, the English ceramic centers of Totnes, Verwood and North Devon in Bristol/Staffordshire, the Midlands South and East Somerset, Beauvais, France and the Rhineland, particularly the Westerwald region of Germany. All the vessels could have been, and probably were, produced in the last decade of the seventeenth century and the first decade of the eighteenth century. Vessel 42, for example bears a sprig-moulded likeness of William III of England (1694-1702), precisely in the centre of the proposed date for the early component occupation. Notable, too, is the absence of English white salt-glazed pottery. It was introduced about 1715 and within a few years became one of the dominant ceramic types on English colonial sites. Its absence from Ilhavo Park supports a terminal date of prior to 1715 (Aardvark Archaeology 2004: 27).

Click on the picture to see a larger version.

Fourteen glass vessels – four wine bottles, two case bottles, three pharmaceuticals and five wine glass fragments were recovered from the early component at Ilhavo Park. All could have been produced during the proposed 1697-1709 period occupation and at least two of the wine bottles (Vessels 1 and 2) are specific to that period (Aardvark Archaeology 2004: 31).

Glass bottles and stemware from the early component at Ilhavo Park

Glass bottles and stemware from the early component at Ilhavo Park

In a recent conversation with Steve Mills he speculated that some of the artifacts they found may have been related to either the 1705 or 1709 French raid, including a broad ax and what may be the “business end” from a ballista dart!

Click on the picture to see a larger version.

He also pointed out that they found a large iron hinge. These three artifacts were near where the ditch to Fort William was located and a sally port (also called a covered way) in the ditch which led into the fort. The hinge may have come from the sally port door or the gate to the civilian fort. Saint Ovide de Brouillan mentions going through the “covert way” or covered way to gain access to the Fort William ramparts. The broad ax, harpoon/ballista blade and hinge could be the only military-related artifacts found associated with Fort William and the civilian fort and the French raids on St. John’s. While this is all speculation it is certainly within the realm of possibility.

The Ilhavo Park site consists of two datable components. The later component is made up of five cellars thought to have been dug after the Great Fire of 1892 and refilled when the houses above them were torn down after World War II. The older component appears to be part of a much larger midden that was up to 70 cm thick in places and contained a typical assortment of smoking pipe stems and bowls, ceramics and glass vessel fragments. The archaeologists interpreted the material as a midden of domestic refuse deposited between 1697 and 1709 by residents of the civil fort. This component appears to continue to the south and west beneath Duckworth Street and probably to the north beneath Plymouth Road.

The recovery of all this material and information from this small area would have been lost under the blade of a bulldozer without PAO’s requirement for an archaeological impact assessment. This process is in place to ensure the protection of Historic Resources in the province and Ilhavo Park is a good example of how the system works.


Thanks to Steve Mills for comments on a draft of this blog and for sharing his photos.

Aardvark Archaeology 2004  Archaeological Investigations at Ilhavo Park (CjAe-53) Duckworth Street and Plymouth Road, St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador. 

Mills, Stephen 2003  Historic Resources Stage 1 Assessment Ilhavo Park, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador.

Pope, Peter 1995  St. John’s Harbour area Archaeological survey.

Where did the Change Islands biface cache come from, chemically speaking?

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In the fall of 2010, Neil White and Marion Adams were at the ferry terminal at Change Islands waiting for the ferry. They took a stroll around the parking lot and in the area just off the pavement they noticed something unusual sticking out of the ground. They recognized the stone they were looking at as having been knapped into the shape of a biface tip. They eventually recovered 30 bifaces made of a steel-blue coloured stone called rhyolite.

Location of Change Islands

Location of Change Islands

Neil and Marion are to be commended for what they did next. Rather than hide the collection away for themselves they shared their discovery with the province. This cache is just one of two biface caches known on the Island; the other one was found at Port au Choix. There are a few more biface caches known in Labrador and in Quebec. Neil and Marion’s discovery was very significant. They were pretty sure they understood what they had found but they wanted to bring the collection to the proper authorities. Within a few days they made contact with the Beothuk Interpretation Centre at Boyd’s Cove. Upon seeing the artifacts the staff at the Centre contacted the Provincial Archaeology Office (PAO) who later investigated the site and found two more artifacts bringing the total collection to 32 bifaces.

Change Islands biface cache (Rast).

Change Islands biface cache (Rast).

According to Neil and Marion the bifaces were stacked next to one another like a deck of cards. This suggests the cache was buried in a rather small area, perhaps in a bark or leather pouch of some sort. Unfortunately there was no physical evidence of such an organic container or any other organic remains associated with the bifaces. Without organic material there is nothing to radiocarbon date the site and we are left with less exact methods to speculate how old the objects are and who made them.

Given the size of the bifaces and their overall shape it is unlikely they were made by any of the Palaeoeskimo groups who lived on the Island in the past. It’s more likely they were made by either someone within the Maritime Archaic or Recent Indian cultural groups. The cache was found at an elevation of 1 to 2 metres above sea level. Since this area of Newfoundland has been submerging since the last glacial period, the site would likely have been underwater during the Maritime Archaic period. So, we are left with the cache having likely been created by someone in the Recent Indian population.

There are two known quarries for rhyolite that are relatively close. One is at Brimstone Head on Fogo Island, just ~10 km in a straight line north east of the discovery. The other quarry is at Bloody Bay Cove in Bonavista Bay, ~100 km in a straight line south east of the discovery. In an effort to try and find the source for the rhyolite used to make the bifaces the PAO had five samples taken from each of the quarries. Those samples and five biface fragments from the cache were loaned to the Dr. Derek Wilton of the Department of Earth Sciences at Memorial University of Newfoundland. The samples and bifaces were subjected to Laser Ablation Microprobe (LAM) – Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) – Mass Spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS) tests. I am not going to pretend that I know exactly how this works, but my understanding is the samples and bifaces are shot with a laser. The material that comes off the sample from the laser is a gas. The chemicals, and their relative quantities, that make up the gas can be identified. Each biface and each sample will have unique chemical signatures but, for example, all the samples from Brimstone Head will be similar enough to each other that we can tell they all came from the same source at Brimstone Head. By conducting this test we can figure out the chemical elements and their quantities that make up each sample. Then we can compare the quarry numbers to the biface numbers and hopefully the biface numbers will be similar enough to either one of the quarry numbers that we can say the biface material likely came from this quarry.

Brimstone Head is in the background of the community of Fogo

Brimstone Head is in the background of the community of Fogo

Bloody Bay Cove quarry. The entire hill behind archaeologist Laurie McLean are pieces of rhyolite flaked from the quarry

Bloody Bay Cove quarry. The entire hill behind archaeologist Laurie McLean are pieces of rhyolite flaked from the quarry

Before anyone complains that we destroyed or damaged the bifaces by letting them be blasted by a laser, the blasted pits are just 30 – 50 microns deep. They would just barely be visible to the human eye.

How big is a micron?

How big is a micron?

Based on the LAM-ICP-MS tests the bifaces were determined to be geochemically identical to the Bloody Bay Cove samples. The LAM-ICP-MS tests also showed that the Brimstone Head samples were highly variable amongst themselves and none of them were chemically close to the bifaces.

Location of the Bloody Bay quarry (bottom left) in relation to Change Islands

Location of the Bloody Bay quarry (bottom right) in relation to Change Islands

In the end, we are left with a good guess as to who made the bifaces, most likely it was a person from the Newfoundland portion of the Recent Indian culture. This gives us an approximate time period, ~2000 years ago up to prolonged European contact. We may be able to narrow this period down a little more. The cache was made up of bifaces that would be interpreted as knives and throwing or thrusting spears, certainly not arrowheads.

In the first half of the Recent Indian period, ~2000-~1000 years ago, Newfoundland was home to two contemporaneous but unrelated groups of people that archaeologists refer to as the Cow Head complex and the Beaches complex. Both of these groups made larger stone tools usually thought of as throwing or thrusting spears. The last group of people in the Recent Indian culture, (~1000 to prolonged European contact) the people of the Little Passage complex, made and used stone tools usually seen as much smaller and more likely arrowheads.

It appears as though someone from the Recent Indian period, perhaps from either the Cow Head or Beaches complex, ~2000-~1000 years ago, used stone sourced from the Bloody Bay Cove quarry to make the bifaces that were left on Change Island. But we are still left wondering why were the bifaces made and why were they left on the shore of Change Islands? We can speculate, but we will likely never know the exact answer to these questions.


WELLS, Karen 2011 Change Islands Couple Makes Rare FindThe Pilot

WILTON, Derek 2012 Report on the LAM-ICP-MS analysis of Arrowheads from Change islands and rhyolitic flakes from the Brimstone Head and Bloody Bay Cove regions, Newfoundland and Labrador.

http://elfshotgallery.blogspot.ca/2011/03/change-islands-cache.html

http://elfshotgallery.blogspot.ca/2010/10/tech-report-hammerstones-harpoon-heads.html

Archaeology in the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador: The L’Anse Amour burial mound

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During the summers of 1973 and 1974 Dr. Robert McGhee and Dr. James Tuck, both then professors at Memorial University of Newfoundland surveyed a large portion of the southern Labrador coast from the Quebec/Labrador border up to Red Bay. They found or relocated 13 sites including a number of important archaeological sites such as the L’Anse Amour burial mound and the oldest known site in the province at Pinware Hill. At L’Anse Amour they found or relocated another 14 discrete scatters of flakes, fire-cracked cobbles, and occasional artifacts and the L’Anse Amour burial mound, all of which they saw as a single site. Today we would treat these as separate sites. I say relocated because part of the area had been surveyed and several of the sites had been found 25 years earlier by Dr. Elmer Harp.

The data from this survey formed the basis of McGhee & Tuck’s 1975 Mercury Series volume An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador. For the most part the cultural sequence laid out in this volume still stands.

ABSTRACT
This report presents the results of archaeological survey and test excavation undertaken on the southern coast of Labrador during the summers of 1973 and 1974. Preliminary reports summarize our work at 14 sites, all but one of which relate to Archaic occupations. These components are placed in chronological sequence using evidence from seriation, comparison of collections, relative site elevations, and radiocarbon dating. The resulting sequence is used as the basis for postulating the development of a local variant of the Maritime Archaic tradition from a late Palaeo-Indian immigration to the area at approximately 8000-9000 years ago. We postulate continuity in the local occupation and adaptation from that time to approximately 3000-2000 years ago, when we suggest that the local tradition was interrupted by a possible environmental change and the immigration of Dorset Eskimos. The prehistory of the last 2000 years is unclear, and we suspect that occupation of this region was sparse and perhaps sporadic during the late prehistoric period. (McGhee & Tuck 1975)
 

The last 2000 years of the sequence was later filled in by people with a culture that archaeologists refer to as Recent Indian.

The field crew for McGhee & Tuck’s surveys included Marcie Madden and Priscilla Renouf. Both of these women produced influential Master’s theses based on sites found or relocated during the McGhee & Tuck survey. Both of them also continued on and earned PhD’s. Dr. Renouf became a professor at Memorial University and ran the very successful Port au Choix Archaeology Project from the mid-1980s up to her passing last year.

While cleaning out Dr. Renouf’s office someone came across an envelope of photos marked L’Anse Amour burial mound. The photos were taken during the excavation of the burial.

Archaeological work at L’Anse Amour took place during the summers of 1973 & 74. McGhee and Tuck noted the presence of the mound in 1973 “…and ignored it in favour of the pleasure of surface collecting in the extensive blowouts closer to the coast.” (McGhee & Tuck 1975:85) They walked over and around the mound for the rest of the summer. It wasn’t until 1974 that they sent several crew members to clear the bushes and sand off the mound.

The burial mound at L'Anse-Amour restored to its original form after the excavation (McGhee 1976: 13)

The burial mound at L’Anse-Amour restored to its original form after the excavation (McGhee 1976: 13)

Clearing the mound in 1974 (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Clearing the mound in 1974 (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

The positions of the boulders were mapped, the structure was divided into quadrants, and the boulders removed from the southwestern quadrant. The rocks averaged some 30 cm in diameter, weighed perhaps 10 kg on the average, and were piled closely together. (McGhee & Tuck 1975:86)
 
Excavation of the burial mound (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Excavation of the burial mound (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Several layers of boulders were removed which totaled nearly 1 metre in depth.

These were mapped and removed, revealing the upper edges of three large slab-like boulders which were set upright in a line, apparently forming the edge of a cist-like structure. Traces of red ochre were found in two places along the line of upright boulders. In order to locate the remainder of the cist, the boulders of the northwest quadrant were removed, and the excavation enlarged to include a two metre strip of the eastern segment of the mound. We duly located the other edge of the cist, a parallel line of two boulders one metre north of the first line but beginning and ending 60 cm farther east than the boulders of the first line. The upper edges of these boulders were encountered at approximately 45 cm below the top of the mound, and they extended to a maximum depth of 100 cm beneath the original surface. At this point we began to have trouble with our excavation, as the sand dried and we began to get cave-ins and threatened cave-ins. Accordingly, we enlarged our excavation to a square pit seven metres on a side and centred on the original centre of the mound. This removed all of the heavy concentration of piled beach boulders in the central area, an irregular concentration some four metres in diameter. The floor of the excavation was now entirely composed of sand, save for the two parallel lines of upright boulders forming the cist within which we expected to find a burial. (McGhee & Tuck 1975:86-87)

 

Photographing the cist-like structure (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Photographing the cist-like structure (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Photographing the excavation (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Photographing the excavation (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Early on in the excavation, large boulders can been seen under foot. It appears as though the archaeologists are trying to use ply-wood to hold back the collapsing walls (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Early on in the excavation, large boulders can be seen under foot. It appears as though the archaeologists are trying to use plywood to hold back the collapsing walls (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Photographing the excavation, large boulders can been seen under foot. It appears as though the archaeologists are trying to use ply-wood to hold back the collapsing walls (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Photographing the excavation, large boulders can be seen under foot. It appears as though the archaeologists are trying to use plywood to hold back the collapsing walls (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

We were to be disappointed in this, as excavation revealed only a few traces of a black substance which might be decayed organic material and a small patch of charcoal containing a few burned but badly deteriorated fish bones; the size of the bones suggests that they came from a fish about the size of a cod or salmon. Having excavated and removed the boulders of the cist, we were faced with a square pit with sand walls and a blank, apparently sterile, floor of sand. Rather discouraged, we nevertheless continued the excavation, and after a couple of hours of removing sterile sand we encountered a small stain of red ochre at a depth of 30 cm below the base of the cist, and 130 cm below the original surface of the mound. This ochre stain proved to derive from the back of a human skull, and a few more hours of excavation revealed the entire skeleton. (McGhee & Tuck 1975:87)
 
Excavation of the burial (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

Excavation of the burial (Renouf collection, courtesy of MUN)

The body had been buried in an extended position, directly beneath the cist-like arrangement of stones some half-metre above. It lay on its stomach, the hands at the sides, the head pointing west and turned so that the face looked to the north. A walrus tusk lay directly in front of the face, and 30 cm to the west of the head there was a pile of artifacts including four stone projectile points or knives, three socketed bone points, and a stemmed bone point. Two more stone projectile points or knives lay directly above and below the left shoulder, and a stone biface was found between the legs. A large slab of rock lay across the lumbar region of the back. More artifacts were revealed when we began to remove the skeleton. At the left side, at about the waist, were found two nodules of graphite stained with red ochre, apparently paint-stones, and a decorated antler artifact which may have been used as a paint-grinder or applicator. Beneath the upper chest area there was a small bone pendant, a bone whistle or flute, a few small fragments of bird bone, and a toggling harpoon-head. Beneath the sacral region lay a decorated ivory toggle. On either side of the skeleton there was a scatter of charcoal extending over an irregular area over one metre in diameter and one boulder lay at a distance of two metres to the northeast of the body. A badly decayed piece of antler, probably caribou antler, was found some two metres to the southeast of the body, and a few small chunks of white quartzite were scattered in the same area. The charcoal scatter indicates that the original burial pit, the walls of which we could not trace in the homogeneous sand marked with stains percolating from the boulders above, was at least five metres in diameter. (McGhee & Tuck 1975:87-88)
 
 
Top photo: A cache of grave goods found above the head, consisting of bone and stone projectile points and a stone knife. Bottom photo: Chipped stone spearpoints and knives, found with the body. (McGhee 1976: 20)

Top photo: A cache of grave goods found above the head, consisting of bone and stone projectile points and a stone knife.
Bottom photo: Chipped stone spearpoints and knives, found with the body. (McGhee 1976: 20)

Objects found in the grave. On the left is a socketed bone projectile point; in the centre, a harpoon head and a barbed bone point; and on the right, a decorated ivory object that may have been a hand toggle for a harpoon line. (McGhee 1976: 21)

Objects found in the grave. On the left is a socketed bone projectile point; in the centre, a harpoon head and a barbed bone point; and on the right, a decorated ivory object that may have been a hand toggle for a harpoon line. (McGhee 1976: 21)

A bird-bone flute and a pendant were found underneath the chest. The paint stones and pestle were on the left side of the body. (McGhee 1976: 24)

A bird-bone flute and a pendant were found underneath the chest. The paint stones and pestle were on the left side of the body. (McGhee 1976: 24)

We learned a tremendous amount about this early culture from this one excavation. For example, the burial clearly demonstrates the sophistication of their Maritime adaption. “The toggling harpoon, an ingenious device for taking sea mammals, is the oldest such weapon in the world.” “Other evidence includes a walrus tusk, the bones of fish and an ivory handle which may have been attached to the end of a skin line opposite the harpoon.” (Tuck 1993: 2-3)

Construction of the mound itself shows a very different society than archaeologists would expect from a hunter-gatherer group. “The construction of burial mounds is traditionally associated with stable, agriculturally-based societies, generally found in more temperate areas of the world. The discovery of such an ancient burial mound, perhaps the oldest such structure in the world, came as a surprise to many archaeologists.” (Tuck 1993: 3)

The dating of the L’Anse Amour burial mound makes it one of the oldest known sites in Labrador and it was far older than expected. The two oldest radiocarbon dates from the site, 8042+87/-110 and 8363 + 66/-324 years ago, suggest the site was constructed more than 8000 years ago. (Tuck 1993: 5)

The excavation of the burial mound took place 40 years ago and archaeology and attitudes towards the excavation of burials has changed since then. Archaeologists would not excavate a burial like this today unless it was under threat of destruction.


McGhee, Robert 1976  The Burial at L’Anse Amour.

McGhee, Robert & James A. Tuck 1975  An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada, Paper No. 34, Ottawa.

Tuck, James 1993   Interpreting L’Anse Amour and Southern Labrador Prehistory. Unpublished internal report submitted to Department of Tourism and Culture.

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