Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake: Part 2

This post is part two of ‘Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake’ continued from two weeks ago. The previous post can be seen here.

In 1980 the Historic Resources Division, Department of Culture, Recreation and Youth began a multi-year project simply entitled the Beothuk Project. The purpose of the early phase of the project was to locate, test, delimit and document Beothuk (and other) archaeological sites. To my knowledge, other than issuing permits to previous archaeologists who worked at Indian Point, this is the first time the Provincial Government is directly involved with Indian Point.

As part of the Beothuk Project, Jane Sproull-Thomson directed an investigation of Indian Point in 1980 and 1981. In 1980 her intention was to ‘…assess recent damage to the site by both human and natural agencies, and to estimate the potential for future archaeological excavation‘ (Sproull-Thomson 1980). Over the course of two days Sproull-Thomson and her crew excavated five one metre square units and completed a new survey map of the site.

Like Marshall, Sproull-Thomson noted a lot of ongoing erosion and destruction of the site. ‘Erosion has removed part of the bank on the northern side of the site, Marshall’s camp area (the sand beach) is partly underwater and forms in part a sandbar, the road is washed away at the point by the pond and the low point is under approximately 20 cm. of water. As well, the bulldozed section of the site seems to have been expanded.’ Her plan for the two days of work was to ‘…locate the cultural areas of the site reported by Locke and Devereux, and to identify Devereux’s excavations.’ To her surprise she found a lot of surface material which to her suggested intact levels below. She was able to test Devereux’s A4 locality and found an intact hearth in the area with burned bone and precontact artifacts. Testing in Devereux’s A3 south locality revealed intact occupation levels and precontact artifacts. She also thought she had located a midden ~18 metres SW of Devereux’s B5 locality. She concluded her report stating ‘The Indian Point Site, although severely damaged by logging and related activity, artifact hunting and erosion, still contains significant archaeological material of probably contact period Beothuck origin. In view of this, it remains a highly important site and one which may offer considerable insight into the Beothuck problem‘ (Sproull-Thomson 1980).

Sproull-Thomson returned to the site July 1 – July 18, 1981 with the intention of assessing the potential of the site then excavate it. She opened eight one metre squares; the sole diagnostic artifact recovered was a corner-notched projectile point. Despite this, she did make some interesting observations. To her it seemed the portions of the site nearest the water appear to be mostly precontact, and those farthest back in the woods were historic Beothuk. She speculated that this was a reasonable expectation considering most Beothuk people wanted to remain hidden from Europeans (Sproull-Thomson 1981).

Despite finding few precontact artifacts she did locate a new historic housepit south of Devereux’s B5 locality. The housepit had a distinct circular hearth and a possible sleeping hollow. Charcoal collected from the hearth produced a date of 150±70 B.P. (Beta-3677). Test excavations through the hearth and wall comprising four one metre squares yielded two artifacts, an iron pot fragment and a nail (Sproull-Thomson 1981).

Testing of new housepit. Wall of the housepit can be seen in the photo (Sproull-Thomson).
Testing of new housepit. Wall of the housepit can be seen in the photo (Sproull-Thomson).

One of the concluding paragraphs of her reports states the following: ‘Our conversations with concerned people and an illustrated talk given in Millertown led the Red Indian Lake Development Association to seek help from Historic Resources in applying for a federal grant to begin development of the Indian Point site as an interpretive park. At this writing, funds have been awarded and work has begun on cleanup of the site and repairs to the access road. It will be an enormous satisfaction to see this aboriginal settlement take its rightful place in the Province’s history(Sproull-Thomson 1981).

View to the SW in 1981. The main areas of Devereux's work localities A3, A3 South, A4 and B4 were located to the right in the photo among the trees and bushes on the small hills. Marshall had camped on the opposite side of those bushes in 1978 on the exposed lake side of the point (Sproull-Thomson 1981)
View to the SW in 1981. The main areas of Devereux’s work, localities A3, A3 South, A4 and B4 were located to the right in the photo among the trees and bushes on the small hills. Marshall had camped on the opposite side of those bushes in 1978 on the exposed lake side of the point (Sproull-Thomson 1981).
Jane Sproull-Thomson's map of Indian Point showing, Locke's features and Devereux's features. The previous photo was take with the photographers back to the cove looking down the site to the SW. (Sproull-Thomson 1981)
Jane Sproull-Thomson’s map of Indian Point showing Locke’s features and Devereux’s features. The previous photo was taken with the photographers back to the cove looking down the site to the SW (Sproull-Thomson 1981).

From this point on, no more in depth archaeological work occurs at Indian Point and the site has periodic visits by various archaeologists. In 1982 Callum Thomson conducted an archaeological survey from Red Indian Lake to Grand Falls along the Exploits River from May 29 to June 19. Before they started the survey they stopped at Indian Point where the Red Indian Lake Development Association was preparing the site for its future use as a park and interpretation centre. Thomson noted, in particular, that ‘We were relieved to note that the few intact parts of the historic and prehistoric site had not been endangered in the clean-up process.‘ On June 19th they returned to Indian Point, ‘Here we were devastated by the new appearance of the Indian Point site. One or more members of the Red Indian Lake Development Association had authorized bulldozer stripping and leveling of parts of the remaining cultural deposits, resulting in the partial destruction of habitation structures, middens, hearths and the scattering of artifacts, animal bones and charcoal, with a consequent loss of archaeological context and information. This grossly negligent act underlines the absolute necessity for developments of this kind to be approached slowly and carefully, under the constant supervision of a professional archaeologist. While ultimate responsibility for this type of destruction is accepted by the Historic Resources Division, which approved the original plans, it will continue until more staff and resources are made available for the immense volume of work generated by the Historic Sites and Objects Act‘ (Thomson 1982).

Six photos stitched together showing Indian Point in 1985 after the leveling of the site in 1982. This photo is taken from the same general area as the Sproull-Thomson photo in 1981. Completely gone are the small bushes, trees and small hills on the right side that held Devereux's various site localities (Thomson 1985).
Six photos stitched together showing Indian Point in 1985 after the leveling of the site in 1982. This photo is taken from the same general area as the Sproull-Thomson photo in 1981. Completely gone are the small bushes, trees and small hills on the right side of the photo that held Devereux’s various site localities (Thomson 1985).

Callum Thomson and Don Locke conducted another survey of Red Indian Lake and Exploits River in 1987 to inspect several archaeological sites that were known to Locke. Once again they started at Indian Point noting the location of disturbed and eroded habitation areas. Despite this Thomson notes ‘There are still, however, several known areas of intact deposits and probably some unknown areas.‘ He does not state where these areas are located. They also inspected the area east of the main site at Indian Point which Locke had found in the 1960s. More archaeological material was found here. In fact it appears as though Indian Point would have extended over most of the point and well into the cove to the east. Unfortunately, most of this portion of the site has eroded (Thomson 1987).

Cove to the east of Indian Point (right side of photo) showing erosion of the shoreline (Thomson).
Cove to the east of Indian Point (right side of photo) showing erosion of the shoreline (Thomson).

In 1992 Fred Schwarz conducted a major archaeological survey of the Exploits Basin from where the Exploits River empties into the Bay of Exploits back to Red Indian Lake. While he did visit the site he did no actual work there (Schwarz 1992).

Charles Burke, representing Parks Canada’s Atlantic Service Centre, visited Indian Point in 2002 in order to assess the extent of purported damage to the site. Parks had learned that a parking area had been constructed in the area of Helen Devereaux’s excavations, essentially bisecting the site. Burke also observed damage due to shoreline erosion.

In 2009 archaeologist Laurie McLean was hired to conduct an impact assessment at Indian Point for the installation of a Hydro-Meteorological (Hydromet) Station. A total of 27 test pits were dug where the station was to be installed and three more were dug in a line on the beach, following the route for a buried cable which was to run from the station to Red Indian Lake. The test pits on the beach were sterile while five of the 27 test pits dug on the level terrace above the beach contained badly waterworn stone artifacts.

Finally, Provincial Archaeology Office (PAO) staff has made several visits to Indian Point over the years. Mostly these were brief visits to check on the site’s condition. In 2012 PAO staff made a visit to the site while in the area on other business. While we did not find in situ remains, we did find plenty of fire-cracked rock on the surface and reason to believe the site may yet have in situ deposits.

Fire-cracked rock seen at Indian Point in 2012.
Fire-cracked rock seen at Indian Point in 2012.

There is also a local group called the Red Indian Lake Heritage Society who try to monitor the site. In 2009 they had a series of interpretive panels installed on the point (the PAO tested the location of the panels prior to their installation). The panels tell the story of the Beothuk who inhabited the Red Indian Lake region. The society did such a good job with the panels that they were awarded the Manning Award by the Historic Sites Association in both the National Category and the Overall Winner for 2011.

Interpretive panel at Indian Point.
Interpretive panel at Indian Point.

In the end what have we learned from Indian Point?  In the very least we learned that the site was used in the precontact period and the historic period by both the Beothuk and their precontact ancestors. While living at the site in mamateeks (or wigwams) they had been processing caribou and making tools from stone and iron. It also appears that they may have been applying ochre to a canoe. These are all good things to know, however, Indian Point has much more to teach us. To paraphrase an archaeologist who helped me with the post, the history of this site is nearly allegorical, symbolizing all over again the end of the Beothuk, and, once again, our helplessness in the face of forces that no one could control (1829 all over again). What can we take away from the story of Indian Point? Is there a lesson-learned component to it? Has it led to any particular action by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador? These are open questions that we can all try to answer. I know the Provincial Archaeology Office (PAO) now consists  of four people who collectively have more than 100 years of archaeology experience, this places the PAO much farther ahead of the Culture and Heritage Division in 1982 when Callum Thomson was asking for more staff. I know since 2003 the PAO has reviewed more than 1500 Land Use Referrals per year, in the last four years that number has risen to more 2500 per year on average. So a land use referral for something like an interpretive park, such as was proposed for Indian Point in 1980, would be closely scrutinized by PAO staff. I also know that when a development, such as an interpretive park, is proposed in an area with archaeological potential or a known archaeological site the PAO will implement mitigative measures whether it be require an archaeological assessment, monitor construction, require buffers, etc. While these improvements are not a direct result of Indian Point, hopefully they will prevent another Indian Point.

Have we learned the lessons of Indian Point? I hope so.


McLean, Laurie
2009 Preliminary Report for Permit 09.48 a Stage 1 HRIA at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake.

Schwarz, Fred
1992 Archaeological Investigations in the Exploits Basin: Report on the 1992 Field Survey.

Sproull-Thomson, Jane
1980  Red Indian Lake ‑ Indian Point Site Survey ‑ June 20‑21, 1980.

1982  Investigations at Red Indian Lake. Archaeology in Newfoundland and Labrador 1981, Annual Report No. 2. Edited by Thomson, J.S. and C. Thomson; Historic Resources Division, Government of Newfoundland, pp 174-189.

Thomson, Callum
1982  An Archaeological Survey of the Exploits River from Red Indian Lake to Grand Falls   May 29- June 19, 1982.

1987  Archaeological survey of Red Indian Lake and Exploits River with D. Locke 1987 10 27-29.

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11 thoughts on “Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake: Part 2

  1. I enjoyed Reading your article(s). However I believe far too much interest has been paid to the Indian Point site and not nearly enough to a site which was likely and more probable a site for the Beothuk Winter Camps located at the inflow of the brook located approx. half a kilometre east of Indian Point. This is the location which Shanawdithit shows on her sketch as having three wigwams. I personally have found the remains of very old bones in this area (likely from caribou) which have not been local to this area since the town of Millertown was formed in the early 1900’s. What has been overlooked time and again at the Indian Point site is the absolute lack of running water. These inland camps of the Beothuk were mainly Winter camps and unless they were going to chop through three to four feet of solid ice with a stone axe to get to the Lake water, they would need a ready and easily accessible source of drinking water. The only source of running water in this area that would not have frozen solid in the Winter months is at this brook. Unfortunately (and as I notified Laurie Mclean back in 2012) this site has been awarded to a developer to build Cabin Lots along the shore of Red Indian Lake. I have searched through every source readily available and can find absolutely no indication that there was any sort of an assessment made on the archaeological significance of this site prior to it being awarded to this developer by the Newfoundland Government. This site is very likely the site of the Beheading of Buchans men in 1811 and based on that fact alone it should have been protected from development of any kind. As of right now there as been minimal actual development to this site but unless there is immediate action this site, will be lost forever of any artifacts that may be found there.

    1. Hi
      Thanks for the comment.
      I believe the area you are referring to is known archaeologically as Three Wigwams. This area was thoroughly examined by several archaeologists over the years in an effort to relocate the three wigwamns noted by Buchan in 1811. Most recently in 2010 the area was searched prior to the cabin development. No trace of that site was found. If you contact the Provincial Archaeology Office they may provide you with the report written by the archaeologist in 2010. pao@gov.nl.ca or http://www.btcrd.gov.nl.ca/department/contact_arts.html#pao

      1. Hello Thank you for your reply.Beinmg from this area and still having property there and knowing many of the townspeople closely I can tell you that I know the area extensively myself and also know of the expediency of how this land was transferred to the developer for the purpose of cabin development. ‎There was not an extensive study done of the area, in fact it was at best cursory so that the documents could be rubber stamped to allow the transfer of the land.  I visited the area in the fall of 2012 and found the bones (presumably caribou) buried into the clay which would normally be under water. Because the lake is (as you know) Dam controlled – the levels fluctuate throughout the year.‎ At this particular time that I visited in the early part of September – 2012 – the water levels were extremely low. The lowest they had been allowed to drop to in a number of years according to local residents. It was only for this drop in the water levels that I was able to locate these bones. At the time of the study in 2010 the water levels did not drop down to that level and therefore that site would not have been available for study without the use of divers. I have found not record of anyone diving at this site at that time, which leaves the conclusions that there was only a study of what was available to be seen above the waterline at that time.  As you mention in your report, the sites at Indian Point are only available when the water level is down to near where it would have been before the flooding in the early 1900’s.  I stress again that these camps were Winter sites where the Beothuk would travel into in the fall / winter. Once the lake had frozen over, they would need a source of easily accessible drinking water and there is none at Indian Point at that time of year. The fact that Shawadihit drew this site into her sketch ( and I have to say her ability to draw all of this from memory in the details that she did is absolutely amazing in itself – her maps were better and in detail and accuracy of landmarks that even those of Cartwright or Buchan). But she drew the site – as you call Three Wigwams (showing three wigwams – I suspect there were more than that there) showing the wigwams but also shows all of the Buchans men travelling up the lake with the Beothuk members to retrieve the goods at the end of the lake – she also shows many more Beothuk leaving the site and travelling across the lake. This would likely have been the occasion when Buchan left his two men behind to go and retrieve the goods to be given as gifts of good faith and he took some of the Beothuk along with him to help in that with that endevour. Upon return Buchan found the Camp empty and the heads of his two men left on stakes according to Buchans account, as I am sure you are aware. Unfortunately this account has always been attibuted to having occuerred at Indian Point or as it was called at the time after that incident- “Bloody Point”. My belief is that the heads were left at Indian Point but the killing acually happened at the camp further to the east near what you call Three Wigams. Because it is the only source of drinking water AND it is drawn in clearly by Shawadihit in her sketch my belief is that this area is likely of More significance than that of Indian Point – which has received the Lions’s share of research in the area.  In growing up in Millertown – we were privy to observe a lot of the activities both on the research and industrial at the Indian Point site. The initial research done by Devereux was done with extensive use of tractors and backhoes to excavate the sites that she was able to identify. Althouhg her report may appear to be complete and accurate – based on her methods of excavation, there is much in those reports that are left to be questioned. I cannot speak of the short visit to the area by Ingeborg Marshall, but it was brief and therefore without much opportunity to do in-depth research. As for the research done in 1980/81 – on that occasion there were three students from Memorial University at the site predominantly and it was a common joke around the town how the three of these students spent more time partying heavily in the local establishments than they did at the site. Their report may look official but I would say that this report should be given the least amount of weight of any available.  You can choose to take what I say here with credibility or not but  I lived in the area for all of my childhood and we crawled through those woods and over the beaches and rocks more than any of the sources you point to in your blog reports. There is some known history and some supposed history of the area and the truth lies somwhere in between.  The biggest problem for research in the area is the water level. Unless the level is down at least 20 feet below normal – back close to where it would have been before the flooding – then the artifacts to be found would be fringe items at best. The main areas remain underwater and as I have stated, the area at what you call the Cove (we call it One Mile BrooK) is likely the area that holds more to be found. ‎I have walked the area between the Lake and the Exploits River to the south of One Mile Brook. There “were” trails there when we were kids that I would call acient trails. They would likely have been Caribou Trails at one time and likely used by the Beothuk to travel between the River and the Lake. Some of those trails are likely still in existance over the three bogs along the route, but unfortunately through the wooded areas there were mainly destroyed by the extensive logging in the area by abitibi on different occasions. These are my reasons for further study required at “The Cove” (One Mile Brook). Unfortunately it seems everyone seems to believe the book has already been written on what is to be known from this area. Maybe one day I will convince someone to look a bit deeper but by then there will likely be cabins and boatdocks etc… built on top of what should have really been studied.  Thank you Tim Fitzpatrick From: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSent: Thursday, November 10, 2016 8:45 AMTo: finsnmask@gmail.comReply To: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSubject: [New comment] Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake: Part 2

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        /* @media only screen and (max-device-width: 480px) { .post { min-width: 700px !important; } } */ WordPress.com nlarchaeology commented: “Hi Thanks for the comment. I believe the area you are referring to is known archaeologically as Three Wigwams. This area was thoroughly examined by several archaeologists over the years in an effort to relocate the three wigwamns noted by Buchan in 1811. “

      2. Well I guess we will have to agree to dis-agree because the water levels were too high at that time to test the area properly in 2010 – and as I expect you are well aware with the Lake water levels highs those Beothuk sites would for the most part be underwater. From: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSent: Thursday, November 10, 2016 10:16 AMTo: finsnmask@gmail.comReply To: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSubject: [New comment] Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake: Part 2

        a:hover { color: red; } a { text-decoration: none; color: #0088cc; }

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        /* @media only screen and (max-device-width: 480px) { .post { min-width: 700px !important; } } */ WordPress.com nlarchaeology commented: “Hi Again, thanks for the comment. The land you are referencing was thoroughly searched prior to the cabin development in fact nearly several hundred testpits were dug. Feel free to contact the PAO pao@gov.nl.ca or http://www.btcrd.gov.nl.ca/department/co

      3. Unfortunately, as you are well aware, the lake shoreline has been heavily impacted by logging and water level fluctuations over the decades since the dams were built. If we have learned anything from the close study of Indian Point it’s that the chances of anything being insitu, in context, along that shoreline is extremely unlikely. Hence part of the reason no underwater work was done.

      4. Well there was only the one dam built and yes I will agree that there likely was damage done  from being underwater since the time of the dam was placed there. That said there are still likely many artifacts to be found at this site – “if” it was excavated when the water levels are down. The bones are still there. Arrow heads and stone tools would not have vanished. The area has a heavy cobble covering for the most part and the erosion of the area would only have gotten down to that level. Damaged yes – Destroyed No! Also as this is very likely the location of the killing of Buchans two men – it holds historical significance on that alone. Those killings led directly to other parties coming into the area ‎and the total annihilation of the Beothuk people. That would be at the very least be worthy of an historical plaque in just about any other part of Canada . . . but here in NL – Nope! From: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSent: Thursday, November 10, 2016 2:14 PMTo: finsnmask@gmail.comReply To: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSubject: [New comment] Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake: Part 2

        a:hover { color: red; } a { text-decoration: none; color: #0088cc; }

        a.primaryactionlink:link, a.primaryactionlink:visited { background-color: #2585B2; color: #fff; } a.primaryactionlink:hover, a.primaryactionlink:active { background-color: #11729E !important; color: #fff !important; }

        /* @media only screen and (max-device-width: 480px) { .post { min-width: 700px !important; } } */ WordPress.com nlarchaeology commented: “Unfortunately, as you are well aware, the lake shoreline has been heavily impacted by logging and water level fluctuations over the decades since the dams were built. If we have learned anything from the close study of Indian Point it’s that the chances “

      5. The problem comes from the amount of disturbance because of the damming, water levels, ice rafting and logging. The artifacts themselves are not the most important part it’s the context, where the artifacts are found in relation to each other and site features. That has been destroyed.

      6. Again we will have to agree to disagree. Being it is very likely the location of the killing of Buchan’s two men – there may well be artifacts relative to those men‎. That in itself would make it an important location. I cannot speak of the study that was done and the Hundreds of test holes supposedly dug etc.. or in what exact location those holes were dug at. The development site is about a Kilometre and a half long and approx. half a kilometre deep down to the water’s edge. It is a sizable tract of land awarded to this developer. A tract of land of that size would require many hundreds of test pits – Especially given that it is in a Known area of Historical significance. Having visited the site and walked through it I cannot say that I saw Any evidence of this testing to have been done there. If it was it certainly was not to the degree of which you purport it to have been done. Again what someone submits as a study is only as good as the methods used I. E. Devereux’s use of bulldozers at the original dig at Indian Point or the supposed study done in  1980 / 81 by university students. If that area warranted digs – why then would this area not be – given that both areas would have suffered the same amount of damage? Or are you saying that the digs at Indian Point were a total waste of time and of no relevance?  From: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSent: Thursday, November 10, 2016 4:41 PMTo: finsnmask@gmail.comReply To: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSubject: [New comment] Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake: Part 2

        a:hover { color: red; } a { text-decoration: none; color: #0088cc; }

        a.primaryactionlink:link, a.primaryactionlink:visited { background-color: #2585B2; color: #fff; } a.primaryactionlink:hover, a.primaryactionlink:active { background-color: #11729E !important; color: #fff !important; }

        /* @media only screen and (max-device-width: 480px) { .post { min-width: 700px !important; } } */ WordPress.com nlarchaeology commented: “The problem comes from the amount of disturbance because of the damming, water levels, ice rafting and logging. The artifacts themselves are not the most important part it’s the context, where the artifacts are found in relation to each other and site fea”

      7. Yes I guess we will have to at that, as the logic you use in your blogs on the significance of the Indian Point site does not carry over to your arguments against the lack of significance at the Cove ( ‎One Mile Brook site) when both are with half a mile of each other and both would have suffered pretty much the exact amount of damage from Logging, Ice etc…  From: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSent: Thursday, November 10, 2016 5:42 PMTo: finsnmask@gmail.comReply To: INSIDE NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARCHAEOLOGYSubject: [New comment] Archaeology and the Beothuk at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake: Part 2

        a:hover { color: red; } a { text-decoration: none; color: #0088cc; }

        a.primaryactionlink:link, a.primaryactionlink:visited { background-color: #2585B2; color: #fff; } a.primaryactionlink:hover, a.primaryactionlink:active { background-color: #11729E !important; color: #fff !important; }

        /* @media only screen and (max-device-width: 480px) { .post { min-width: 700px !important; } } */ WordPress.com nlarchaeology commented: “OK, we are going to agree to disagree on most if not all of this.”

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